Sunday, November 30, 2008

Tips Mengolah dan Memodifikasi Adonan Roti (Bag.2)

Tips Mengolah dan Memodifikasi Adonan Roti (Bag.2)
kirman: Bunda Syahrial Z, Kota Duri- Riau

Metode Pembuatan Adonan Roti
Banyak metode pembuatan roti manis, roti unyil, roti burger seperti metode sponge dough (metode tidak langsung). Metode yang umum digunakan adalah straight dough atau metode langsung. Metode ini dibuat dengan cara mencampur semua resep bahan dan mengaduknya hinngga terbentuk adonan yang licin dan kalis. Metode ini paling umum digunakan karena hasil adonan maksimal, waktu fermentasi bahan resep-nya hanyak 1.5 - 3 jam.

Tahap Penting pembuatan Adonan
Hasil roti akan maksimal jika mengikuti tahap pembuatan yang baik dan benar sesuai petunjuk. Berikut tahap dasar pembuatan roti;

1. Penimbangan
Setelah semua bahan dipilih yang berkualitas baik, bahan roti kemudian ditimbang. Penimbangan dan pengukuran sebaiknya menggunakan alat ukur yang standar. Benda padat ditimbang dengan timbangan digital atau analog.
Benda cari menggunakan gelas ukur, sedangkan bahan-bahan pemberi aroma biasanya diukur dengan sendok ukur. Ketepatan timbangan sangat memperngaruhi hasil roti. Pastikan timbangan berfungsi dengan baik dan proses menimbang dilakukan dengan benar agar hasil roti maksimal.

2. Pengadukan / Pencampuran / Mixing
Proses pengadukan bahan resep merupakan tahap yang sangat penting di dalam membuat roti. Prosesnya pertama mencampur resep adonan menjadi satu (pick up), adonan kemudian diaduk agar tidak menempel lagi di mixer dan mangkok adonan, pengadukan diteruskan hingga permukaan resep adonan licin dan elastis, teruskan mengaduk sebentar lagi hingga seluruh resep adonan licin kalis dan permukaan terlihat kering.
Setelah tahap ini pengadukan sebaiknya dihentikan, jika tidak adonan akan basah, lengket dan berair. Bila tahap ini terjadi maka akan overmix dan adonan akan menghasilkan kue yang bantat, lembek dan pri-pori tidak bagus.

Fungsi pengadukan adalah menciptakan adonan yang homogen, membentuk dan melunakan gluten sehingga memungkinkan adonan menahan gas ketika proses pengembangan / fermentasi.

3. Fermentasi
Setelah seluruh resep adonan kalis, adonan kemudan dibulatkan dan didiamkan untuk fermentasi / pengembangan. suhu ideal untuk fermentasi roti adalah kisaran 34 - 35 derajat Celcius. Suhu terlalu dingin akan menyebabkan proses fermenasi berjalan lambat, sedangkan suhu terlalu panas akan menyebabkan fermentasi berjalan terlalu cepat dan yang mengakibatkan tekstur roti menjadi kasar.

Waktu yang diperlukan untuk fermentasi adalah 30 menit, namun fermentasi akan menjadi semakin lama jika suhu dingin. Dalam kondisi ini, fermentasi bisa mencapai dalam 1 jam. Patokannya adalah, proses fermentasi segera diberhentikan ketika resep adonan sudah mengembang dua kali lipat dari besar resep adonan semula atau ketika adonan ditekan dengan jari, adonan meninggalkan bekas permanen, tidak kembali ke bentuk semula.

Fermentasi terlalu lama akan menyebabkan adonan over prof, yaitu kondisi dimana adonan menjadi lembek dan berair. Fermentasi terlalu singkat akan menyebabkan roti keras, pori-pori kasar dan roti tidak empuk.

4. Pengempesan Adonan
Setelah adonan difermentasikan, resep adonan kemudian dikempeskan dengan cara meninjunya dengan tangan atau digiling dengan gilingan hingga gas terbuang semua. Tujuan dari pengempesan ini adlah menghentikan sementara proses fermentasi karena adonan akan dipotong dan ditimbang. jangan menguleni adonan yang sudah difermentaikan karena pori-pori yang sudah terbentuk akan menjadi rusak dan serat yang terbentuk menjadi hilang. Cukup dikempeskan saja.

5. Potong dan Timbang
Adonan yang sudah dikempeskan kemudan dipotong menjadi bentuk sesuai kebutuhan resep dan ditimbang. Tujuannya agar roti yang dihasilkan besarnya seragam dengan berat dan volume yang sama.

6. Pembulatan Adonan
Adonan yang sudah dikempeskan kemudian dibulatkan kembali dengan tangan. Tujuannya adalah membentuk lapisan film untuk menahan gas selama proses fermentasi dua. Manfaatnya adonan lebih mudah dibentuk dan lebih elastis.

7. Pembentukan
Setelah difermentasi-2, resep adonan kemudian digiling agar gas keluar dan dibentuk sesuai kebutahan resep. Pada tahap ini seringkali dilakukan penambahan isi di dalam adonan resep .

8. Fermentasi
Tahap ini sering disebut dengan perletakan adonan di dalam cetakan atau panning. setelah adonan diletakkan di dalam loyang atau cetakan beroles margarin. Fermentasikan adonan atau diamkan resep adonan selama 15 menit atau hingga adonan mengembang maksimal. Adakalanya setelah resep adonan mengembang maksimal, permukaan diolesi dengan kuning telur atau susu tawar dan larutan gula pasir agar warna kulit lebih mengkilat dan bagus.

9. Pengovenan atau Pembakaran
Pengovenan resep adonan roti memerlukan temperatur yang berbeda pada masing-masing jenisnya. untuk roti ukuran kecil diperlukan suhu sekitar 180 derajat Celcius selama 12 - 15 menit. Untuk ukuran lebih besar seperti roti tawar diperlukan sushu 220 derajat celcius selama 20 - 25 menit.

Pemanggangan dilakukan hingga roti matang dan kulit berwarna kuning kecokelatan. Roti yang menggunakan gula banyak seperti roti manis memerlukan waktu pemanggangan lebih singkat karena gula yang tinggi mengakibatkan adonan lebih cepat berwarna kecokelatan. Selalu memanaskan oven selama 5-10 menit terlebih dahulu sebelum adonan roti dioven hingga tercapai suhu yang diinginkan.***

source: Tabloid Lezat


A Beginners Guide to Chinese Cookery

When I first ate Chinese food in the UK in the 1970s, it was really quite unappealing. Everything came in a gloopy sauce and seemed to taste the same, due to the overuse of monosodium glutamate, supposedly a flavour enhancer but in reality, nothing of the kind. Then in the 1980s a new breed of Chinese restaurant arrived (at least it took that long to reach the provinces) which provided lighter, tastier Chinese cooking demonstrating regional differences. There was one drawback, however, which was that this new type of restaurant was much more expensive than the original cheap 'n tasteless ones. Consequently, I thought how nice it would be to cook Chinese food at home but I had no idea where to start until BBC TV came to my rescue in the shape of Ken Hom, the USA-born chef of Cantonese parents.

Ken presented Chinese cuisine in such an easily-understandable way, demonstrating techniques and suggesting alternative ingredients should the originals not be available in your local supermarket. The book which accompanied the series, Ken Hom's Chinese Cookery became my bible and I still have my copy, pages stained with oil drips and smears of sauce.

To help you on your way to cooking Chinese food at home, I'm going to briefly describe the basic equipment, ingredients and techniques which you need to know so that you can produce some simple and tasty dishes. I hope you enjoy the article and that it inspires you to get cooking!

Although there are many implements and pieces of equipment you can buy, to start on the road to cooking your own Chinese food, you really only need a good knife or two and a wok. Woks come in all shapes and sizes, they can be non-stick, flat-bottomed, they can even be electric these days but I still prefer my old carbon steel wok with it's rounded bottom and one wooden handle. This is a Pau wok. These are readily available in Chinese supermarkets and are much less expensive than other varieties. There is one important task though, before you will be ready to cook with such a wok and that is to season it. You will need to scrub it with a cream cleaner to remove any residues of machine oil and dry it carefully. Put the wok on the hob over a low heat. Rub the inside of the wok with two tablespoons of cooking oil using kitchen towel. Let the wok heat slowly for 10 to 15 minutes then wipe the inside with more kitchen towel. The paper will come away black. Carry on coating, heating and cleaning off until the kitchen towel comes away clean. Your wok is now ready to use. After use, wash only in water without detergent and dry thoroughly over a low heat. You may also apply a little oil if you wish. This should prevent the wok from rusting but if it does develop rust, just scrub and season again.

As well as the wok, you will need a wok stand, particularly if you have an electric hob. This keeps the wok stable if you are using it for braising or deep frying.

You will also need something to stir with - any spatula, slice or slotted spoon will do - metal for a metal wok and plastic or wooden for a non-stick wok.

Before you rush out and buy up the whole Chinese section at the supermarket, bear in mind that some ingredients don't keep well if left unused. Just select something simple from your chosen cookery book and buy the things that you need for that then you can expand your selection as you progress through different dishes.
Some common store-cupboard ingredients that you will almost certainly need are dark and light soy sauce, some sort of cooking oil and sesame oil, cornflour and rice wine or sherry. For more information, see my article Chinese Cooking - Ingredients and Equipment.

The most well known Chinese cooking technique is stir-frying. This is where your wok comes into its own as it's shape and size (at least 14 inches diameter with deep sides) is ideal for quick cooking. The secret to successful stir-frying is to have all your ingredients ready in advance.

Meat should be cut according to the recipe but normally in thin strips. Vegetables likewise but in any event should be of similar shapes and sizes to ensure even cooking. Long thin vegetables such as spring onions, carrots or asparagus are often cut on the diagonal so that more surface area is exposed for quicker cooking. Measure out sauce ingredients - check the recipe - if they are all added to the dish at the same time, you can put them all in one small bowl. If cornflour is included, don't forget to give it a good stir before adding to the other food.

Once you have everything prepared, heat your wok until it is very hot then add oil and using your chosen stirring implement ensure that the oil is evenly distributed over the surface of the wok. Before you add your ingredients. the wok should be so hot that it is almost smoking - this will prevent the food from being greasy. The exception to this is if you are flavouring your oil with garlic, chilli, spring onions, ginger or salt - these will burn if the oil is too hot.

Now add your other ingredients in the order stated in the recipe and toss them over the surface of the wok ensuring that nothing rests in one place for too long and moving the food from the centre of the wok to the sides. I suggest that you wear an apron or other protective clothing for this operation as the food often spits due to the high temperature it is cooked at.

Deep Frying
You can use your wok for deep frying but be very careful that it is safely balanced on its stand. Under no circumstances leave it unattended. Deep frying in a wok uses less oil than a deep fryer or saucepan but you may find these safer and easier to use.

When deep frying, make sure that the oil is hot enough before adding ingredients or the food will end up very greasy. Test it by dropping in a small piece of prepared food or a cube of bread. If the oil bubbles up around what you dropped in then it's hot enough.

Make sure that food to be deep fried is dried thoroughly on kitchen paper or drained of its marinade before cooking otherwise it will spit.

Shallow Frying
This is the same as the Western technique. Fry food on one side, then the other and drain off any excess oil before adding sauce ingredients. A normal frying pan is fine for this.

Steaming is widely used in Chinese cookery. You can use a bamboo steamer in a wok, a heat-proof plate placed on a rack in a wok or other large pan or you can use a normal European steamer.

If using a bamboo steamer or plate in a wok, bring about 2 inches of water to a simmer. Put your rack into the wok (if the bamboo steamer is big enough and will sit on the sides of the wok without being in the water, you don't need a rack) and balance your plate or steamer of food on it. Put the lid on your steamer or wok and check occasionally to see if the water needs topping up (use water which is already hot).

Whichever method you use, make sure that the food is above the water level and isn't getting wet.

As with Western cooking, braising is used for tougher cuts of meat and involves gentle cooking of meat and/or vegetables in flavoured stock. Red-braising is the technique where food is braised in a dark liquid such as soy sauce which gives the food a red/brown colour. This type of braising sauce can be frozen and re-used.

Liz Canham
As well as a love of Asian cooking and travel as you can see in her Asian Food and Cookery and Travellers' Tales websites, Liz seeks to help newcomers to the world of internet marketing with tools, tips and training from her website. ***

by Liz Canham
As well as a love of Asian cooking and travel as you can see in her Asian Food and Cookery and Travellers' Tales websites, Liz seeks to help newcomers to the world of internet marketing with tools, tips and training from her website.


Kitchen Mysteries

One of the biggest unsolved mysteries of the kitchen is the fondue pot. Fondue pots are a popular bridal registry item and they are often given as house warming gifts. But by the time the thank you cards have been sent, the fondue pot has usually disappeared never to be heard from again. They wind up in the back of a closet or in the attic or some are even re-gifted. Why does everyone want a fondue pot but no one ever gets around to making fondue?

Fondue is easy to make. Sure there are some recipes that require saut ing vegetables or marinating meat overnight and some use exotic ingredients that you won't find at the supermarket. Those types of recipes taste great but they are the reason that your fondue pot is gathering dust instead of being used.

The key to getting use out of your fondue pot is to pick very simple recipes that are easy to make such as the recipes listed below. One is a basic cheese fondue that substitutes regular Swiss Cheese for the more expensive and harder to find Gruyere cheese. The 2nd recipe is Mocha Fondue, a must try recipe for coffee and chocolate lovers. Once again this is a recipe with basic ingredients and easy instructions.

Swiss Fondue 2 cups dry White Wine 1 Garlic Clove 1 lb Swiss Cheese 3 tbsp Flour 1 tbsp Lemon Juice 1/4 tsp White Pepper Salt to taste Nutmeg to taste

Rub the inside of the fondue pot with the garlic clove and add clove to pot Heat up the White Wine & Lemon Juice on medium low heat - should be hot but do not boil Mix Flour and Cheese in a bowl Slowly add cheese mixture while stirring Add remainder of ingredients while stirring Optional: Add a splash of Kirsch or Blackberry Brandy To Dip: Italian bread cut into cubes, vegetables, flat breads

Mocha Fondue 8 oz Semisweet Chocolate 1/2 cup Hot Espresso or Coffee 3 tbsp Granulated Sugar 2 tbsp Butter 1/2 tsp Vanilla Extract

Chop chocolate into small pieces and set aside Heat espresso and sugar in fondue pot on low heat Slowly add chocolate and butter while stirring Add Vanilla Optional: Add a splash of Irish Cream To Dip: Angel Food Cake, Apple Slices, Bananas, Strawberries, Pound Cake, Pretzels, Pineapple Chunks, Marshmallows

Fondue can be easy to make and it's definitely fun. The key is to use simple recipes so that you can spend your time enjoying fondue and not worrying about getting a complicated recipe right. Isn't it time that your fondue pot became a permanent fixture on your countertop. You can free up some room for it by moving the crock pot into the closet. ***

by Anthony Tripodi
About the author: Anthony Tripodi is the webmaster of - The Home of Fondue. For more information about fondue including recipes, ideas and equipment, visit

1 comment:

jaya said...

Thanks for sharing, I will bookmark and be back again

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