Sunday, November 30, 2008

Tips Mengolah dan Memodifikasi Adonan Roti (Bag.2)

Tips Mengolah dan Memodifikasi Adonan Roti (Bag.2)
kirman: Bunda Syahrial Z, Kota Duri- Riau

Metode Pembuatan Adonan Roti
Banyak metode pembuatan roti manis, roti unyil, roti burger seperti metode sponge dough (metode tidak langsung). Metode yang umum digunakan adalah straight dough atau metode langsung. Metode ini dibuat dengan cara mencampur semua resep bahan dan mengaduknya hinngga terbentuk adonan yang licin dan kalis. Metode ini paling umum digunakan karena hasil adonan maksimal, waktu fermentasi bahan resep-nya hanyak 1.5 - 3 jam.

Tahap Penting pembuatan Adonan
Hasil roti akan maksimal jika mengikuti tahap pembuatan yang baik dan benar sesuai petunjuk. Berikut tahap dasar pembuatan roti;

1. Penimbangan
Setelah semua bahan dipilih yang berkualitas baik, bahan roti kemudian ditimbang. Penimbangan dan pengukuran sebaiknya menggunakan alat ukur yang standar. Benda padat ditimbang dengan timbangan digital atau analog.
Benda cari menggunakan gelas ukur, sedangkan bahan-bahan pemberi aroma biasanya diukur dengan sendok ukur. Ketepatan timbangan sangat memperngaruhi hasil roti. Pastikan timbangan berfungsi dengan baik dan proses menimbang dilakukan dengan benar agar hasil roti maksimal.

2. Pengadukan / Pencampuran / Mixing
Proses pengadukan bahan resep merupakan tahap yang sangat penting di dalam membuat roti. Prosesnya pertama mencampur resep adonan menjadi satu (pick up), adonan kemudian diaduk agar tidak menempel lagi di mixer dan mangkok adonan, pengadukan diteruskan hingga permukaan resep adonan licin dan elastis, teruskan mengaduk sebentar lagi hingga seluruh resep adonan licin kalis dan permukaan terlihat kering.
Setelah tahap ini pengadukan sebaiknya dihentikan, jika tidak adonan akan basah, lengket dan berair. Bila tahap ini terjadi maka akan overmix dan adonan akan menghasilkan kue yang bantat, lembek dan pri-pori tidak bagus.

Fungsi pengadukan adalah menciptakan adonan yang homogen, membentuk dan melunakan gluten sehingga memungkinkan adonan menahan gas ketika proses pengembangan / fermentasi.

3. Fermentasi
Setelah seluruh resep adonan kalis, adonan kemudan dibulatkan dan didiamkan untuk fermentasi / pengembangan. suhu ideal untuk fermentasi roti adalah kisaran 34 - 35 derajat Celcius. Suhu terlalu dingin akan menyebabkan proses fermenasi berjalan lambat, sedangkan suhu terlalu panas akan menyebabkan fermentasi berjalan terlalu cepat dan yang mengakibatkan tekstur roti menjadi kasar.

Waktu yang diperlukan untuk fermentasi adalah 30 menit, namun fermentasi akan menjadi semakin lama jika suhu dingin. Dalam kondisi ini, fermentasi bisa mencapai dalam 1 jam. Patokannya adalah, proses fermentasi segera diberhentikan ketika resep adonan sudah mengembang dua kali lipat dari besar resep adonan semula atau ketika adonan ditekan dengan jari, adonan meninggalkan bekas permanen, tidak kembali ke bentuk semula.

Fermentasi terlalu lama akan menyebabkan adonan over prof, yaitu kondisi dimana adonan menjadi lembek dan berair. Fermentasi terlalu singkat akan menyebabkan roti keras, pori-pori kasar dan roti tidak empuk.

4. Pengempesan Adonan
Setelah adonan difermentasikan, resep adonan kemudian dikempeskan dengan cara meninjunya dengan tangan atau digiling dengan gilingan hingga gas terbuang semua. Tujuan dari pengempesan ini adlah menghentikan sementara proses fermentasi karena adonan akan dipotong dan ditimbang. jangan menguleni adonan yang sudah difermentaikan karena pori-pori yang sudah terbentuk akan menjadi rusak dan serat yang terbentuk menjadi hilang. Cukup dikempeskan saja.

5. Potong dan Timbang
Adonan yang sudah dikempeskan kemudan dipotong menjadi bentuk sesuai kebutuhan resep dan ditimbang. Tujuannya agar roti yang dihasilkan besarnya seragam dengan berat dan volume yang sama.

6. Pembulatan Adonan
Adonan yang sudah dikempeskan kemudian dibulatkan kembali dengan tangan. Tujuannya adalah membentuk lapisan film untuk menahan gas selama proses fermentasi dua. Manfaatnya adonan lebih mudah dibentuk dan lebih elastis.

7. Pembentukan
Setelah difermentasi-2, resep adonan kemudian digiling agar gas keluar dan dibentuk sesuai kebutahan resep. Pada tahap ini seringkali dilakukan penambahan isi di dalam adonan resep .

8. Fermentasi
Tahap ini sering disebut dengan perletakan adonan di dalam cetakan atau panning. setelah adonan diletakkan di dalam loyang atau cetakan beroles margarin. Fermentasikan adonan atau diamkan resep adonan selama 15 menit atau hingga adonan mengembang maksimal. Adakalanya setelah resep adonan mengembang maksimal, permukaan diolesi dengan kuning telur atau susu tawar dan larutan gula pasir agar warna kulit lebih mengkilat dan bagus.

9. Pengovenan atau Pembakaran
Pengovenan resep adonan roti memerlukan temperatur yang berbeda pada masing-masing jenisnya. untuk roti ukuran kecil diperlukan suhu sekitar 180 derajat Celcius selama 12 - 15 menit. Untuk ukuran lebih besar seperti roti tawar diperlukan sushu 220 derajat celcius selama 20 - 25 menit.

Pemanggangan dilakukan hingga roti matang dan kulit berwarna kuning kecokelatan. Roti yang menggunakan gula banyak seperti roti manis memerlukan waktu pemanggangan lebih singkat karena gula yang tinggi mengakibatkan adonan lebih cepat berwarna kecokelatan. Selalu memanaskan oven selama 5-10 menit terlebih dahulu sebelum adonan roti dioven hingga tercapai suhu yang diinginkan.***

source: Tabloid Lezat


A Beginners Guide to Chinese Cookery

When I first ate Chinese food in the UK in the 1970s, it was really quite unappealing. Everything came in a gloopy sauce and seemed to taste the same, due to the overuse of monosodium glutamate, supposedly a flavour enhancer but in reality, nothing of the kind. Then in the 1980s a new breed of Chinese restaurant arrived (at least it took that long to reach the provinces) which provided lighter, tastier Chinese cooking demonstrating regional differences. There was one drawback, however, which was that this new type of restaurant was much more expensive than the original cheap 'n tasteless ones. Consequently, I thought how nice it would be to cook Chinese food at home but I had no idea where to start until BBC TV came to my rescue in the shape of Ken Hom, the USA-born chef of Cantonese parents.

Ken presented Chinese cuisine in such an easily-understandable way, demonstrating techniques and suggesting alternative ingredients should the originals not be available in your local supermarket. The book which accompanied the series, Ken Hom's Chinese Cookery became my bible and I still have my copy, pages stained with oil drips and smears of sauce.

To help you on your way to cooking Chinese food at home, I'm going to briefly describe the basic equipment, ingredients and techniques which you need to know so that you can produce some simple and tasty dishes. I hope you enjoy the article and that it inspires you to get cooking!

Although there are many implements and pieces of equipment you can buy, to start on the road to cooking your own Chinese food, you really only need a good knife or two and a wok. Woks come in all shapes and sizes, they can be non-stick, flat-bottomed, they can even be electric these days but I still prefer my old carbon steel wok with it's rounded bottom and one wooden handle. This is a Pau wok. These are readily available in Chinese supermarkets and are much less expensive than other varieties. There is one important task though, before you will be ready to cook with such a wok and that is to season it. You will need to scrub it with a cream cleaner to remove any residues of machine oil and dry it carefully. Put the wok on the hob over a low heat. Rub the inside of the wok with two tablespoons of cooking oil using kitchen towel. Let the wok heat slowly for 10 to 15 minutes then wipe the inside with more kitchen towel. The paper will come away black. Carry on coating, heating and cleaning off until the kitchen towel comes away clean. Your wok is now ready to use. After use, wash only in water without detergent and dry thoroughly over a low heat. You may also apply a little oil if you wish. This should prevent the wok from rusting but if it does develop rust, just scrub and season again.

As well as the wok, you will need a wok stand, particularly if you have an electric hob. This keeps the wok stable if you are using it for braising or deep frying.

You will also need something to stir with - any spatula, slice or slotted spoon will do - metal for a metal wok and plastic or wooden for a non-stick wok.

Before you rush out and buy up the whole Chinese section at the supermarket, bear in mind that some ingredients don't keep well if left unused. Just select something simple from your chosen cookery book and buy the things that you need for that then you can expand your selection as you progress through different dishes.
Some common store-cupboard ingredients that you will almost certainly need are dark and light soy sauce, some sort of cooking oil and sesame oil, cornflour and rice wine or sherry. For more information, see my article Chinese Cooking - Ingredients and Equipment.

The most well known Chinese cooking technique is stir-frying. This is where your wok comes into its own as it's shape and size (at least 14 inches diameter with deep sides) is ideal for quick cooking. The secret to successful stir-frying is to have all your ingredients ready in advance.

Meat should be cut according to the recipe but normally in thin strips. Vegetables likewise but in any event should be of similar shapes and sizes to ensure even cooking. Long thin vegetables such as spring onions, carrots or asparagus are often cut on the diagonal so that more surface area is exposed for quicker cooking. Measure out sauce ingredients - check the recipe - if they are all added to the dish at the same time, you can put them all in one small bowl. If cornflour is included, don't forget to give it a good stir before adding to the other food.

Once you have everything prepared, heat your wok until it is very hot then add oil and using your chosen stirring implement ensure that the oil is evenly distributed over the surface of the wok. Before you add your ingredients. the wok should be so hot that it is almost smoking - this will prevent the food from being greasy. The exception to this is if you are flavouring your oil with garlic, chilli, spring onions, ginger or salt - these will burn if the oil is too hot.

Now add your other ingredients in the order stated in the recipe and toss them over the surface of the wok ensuring that nothing rests in one place for too long and moving the food from the centre of the wok to the sides. I suggest that you wear an apron or other protective clothing for this operation as the food often spits due to the high temperature it is cooked at.

Deep Frying
You can use your wok for deep frying but be very careful that it is safely balanced on its stand. Under no circumstances leave it unattended. Deep frying in a wok uses less oil than a deep fryer or saucepan but you may find these safer and easier to use.

When deep frying, make sure that the oil is hot enough before adding ingredients or the food will end up very greasy. Test it by dropping in a small piece of prepared food or a cube of bread. If the oil bubbles up around what you dropped in then it's hot enough.

Make sure that food to be deep fried is dried thoroughly on kitchen paper or drained of its marinade before cooking otherwise it will spit.

Shallow Frying
This is the same as the Western technique. Fry food on one side, then the other and drain off any excess oil before adding sauce ingredients. A normal frying pan is fine for this.

Steaming is widely used in Chinese cookery. You can use a bamboo steamer in a wok, a heat-proof plate placed on a rack in a wok or other large pan or you can use a normal European steamer.

If using a bamboo steamer or plate in a wok, bring about 2 inches of water to a simmer. Put your rack into the wok (if the bamboo steamer is big enough and will sit on the sides of the wok without being in the water, you don't need a rack) and balance your plate or steamer of food on it. Put the lid on your steamer or wok and check occasionally to see if the water needs topping up (use water which is already hot).

Whichever method you use, make sure that the food is above the water level and isn't getting wet.

As with Western cooking, braising is used for tougher cuts of meat and involves gentle cooking of meat and/or vegetables in flavoured stock. Red-braising is the technique where food is braised in a dark liquid such as soy sauce which gives the food a red/brown colour. This type of braising sauce can be frozen and re-used.

Liz Canham
As well as a love of Asian cooking and travel as you can see in her Asian Food and Cookery and Travellers' Tales websites, Liz seeks to help newcomers to the world of internet marketing with tools, tips and training from her website. ***

by Liz Canham
As well as a love of Asian cooking and travel as you can see in her Asian Food and Cookery and Travellers' Tales websites, Liz seeks to help newcomers to the world of internet marketing with tools, tips and training from her website.


Kitchen Mysteries

One of the biggest unsolved mysteries of the kitchen is the fondue pot. Fondue pots are a popular bridal registry item and they are often given as house warming gifts. But by the time the thank you cards have been sent, the fondue pot has usually disappeared never to be heard from again. They wind up in the back of a closet or in the attic or some are even re-gifted. Why does everyone want a fondue pot but no one ever gets around to making fondue?

Fondue is easy to make. Sure there are some recipes that require saut ing vegetables or marinating meat overnight and some use exotic ingredients that you won't find at the supermarket. Those types of recipes taste great but they are the reason that your fondue pot is gathering dust instead of being used.

The key to getting use out of your fondue pot is to pick very simple recipes that are easy to make such as the recipes listed below. One is a basic cheese fondue that substitutes regular Swiss Cheese for the more expensive and harder to find Gruyere cheese. The 2nd recipe is Mocha Fondue, a must try recipe for coffee and chocolate lovers. Once again this is a recipe with basic ingredients and easy instructions.

Swiss Fondue 2 cups dry White Wine 1 Garlic Clove 1 lb Swiss Cheese 3 tbsp Flour 1 tbsp Lemon Juice 1/4 tsp White Pepper Salt to taste Nutmeg to taste

Rub the inside of the fondue pot with the garlic clove and add clove to pot Heat up the White Wine & Lemon Juice on medium low heat - should be hot but do not boil Mix Flour and Cheese in a bowl Slowly add cheese mixture while stirring Add remainder of ingredients while stirring Optional: Add a splash of Kirsch or Blackberry Brandy To Dip: Italian bread cut into cubes, vegetables, flat breads

Mocha Fondue 8 oz Semisweet Chocolate 1/2 cup Hot Espresso or Coffee 3 tbsp Granulated Sugar 2 tbsp Butter 1/2 tsp Vanilla Extract

Chop chocolate into small pieces and set aside Heat espresso and sugar in fondue pot on low heat Slowly add chocolate and butter while stirring Add Vanilla Optional: Add a splash of Irish Cream To Dip: Angel Food Cake, Apple Slices, Bananas, Strawberries, Pound Cake, Pretzels, Pineapple Chunks, Marshmallows

Fondue can be easy to make and it's definitely fun. The key is to use simple recipes so that you can spend your time enjoying fondue and not worrying about getting a complicated recipe right. Isn't it time that your fondue pot became a permanent fixture on your countertop. You can free up some room for it by moving the crock pot into the closet. ***

by Anthony Tripodi
About the author: Anthony Tripodi is the webmaster of - The Home of Fondue. For more information about fondue including recipes, ideas and equipment, visit

Variety Is The Key To A Healthy Diet

Variety Is The Key To A Healthy Diet
When examining the diets of my clients, I commonly find that even of those who tell me they eat from a healthy diet actually eat from a very narrow selection of foods. Most of their food choices are also processed or heavily prepared before eating. These people also frequently complain of failed diets and of their desire to maintain a more healthy weight and to feel the benefits they expect from a healthy diet. One of the most frequently cited reasons that diets and attempts at healthy eating fail is boredom. Many people simply do not know how to meet the challenge of keeping a healthy diet interesting day after day.

With just a little bit of planning and the huge variety of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, meats and other healthy foods at the local grocery store, it is possible to create exciting, nutritious meals that will keep boredom at bay.

The key to the success of any plan for healthy eating is to eat what you like, but to exercise moderation when it comes to the less healthy foods. Improving your level of health and fitness does not mean saying no that piece of chocolate cake, but it does mean limiting yourself to one piece, and possibly a smaller piece than you normally eat. A key contributing factor in unwanted weight gain is lack of portion control. Restaurants provide portions which often provide the entire daily recommendation for calorie intake, but in a single meal!

A healthy diet contains all types of foods, including carbohydrates, proteins, and even fats. However, there is a significant difference in the quality of the fats in fried foods compared to the fats in a lightly cooked fish, an avocado or flax seed. Seek out quality sources of nutrition and limit your intake of processed foods. Look through some simple cookbooks with pictures. Look for a small collection of appealing dishes that use similar ingredients. This way you can economize at the grocery store by shopping for ingredients you can use for an entire week. Do not buy too far in advance and avoid buying ingredients in bulk because you will likely get tired of them before you finish using them up.

The revised USDA food pyramid contains five major food groups - grains, vegetables, fruits, milk and dairy, and meat and beans. When choosing foods from these groups, it is important to eat an appropriate amount of a wide variety of foods from every food group. Doing so will not only give you a great deal of variety and keep boredom from setting in, but it will provide the best nutritional balance as well. Seek out new food items and try them out. Perhaps you can choose a new type of bean or a fruit that is new to you. If you don't like it, you don't have to buy it again, but try new foods and think about how the flavors might work in simple dishes or as replacement ingredients in your favorite recipes.

When choosing foods from within the various food groups, some choices are naturally better and healthier than others. For instance, choosing skim or 2% milk instead of full fat whole milk is a good way to cut down on both extra fat and calories. Choosing poultry or lean meat is a great way to get the protein you need every day without extra fat, cholesterol and calories. You don't even need to eat animal protein for healthy protein intake. Even champion bodybuilder, and vegetarian, Bill Pearl, manages to get all the protein he needs from vegetable sources only. You don't have to "go vegetarian," but you don't have to eat an animal every day either.

Not all low fat foods are created equally. Check the label! Many low fat foods add starches and sugars which will raise insulin levels and may lead to unwanted weight gain. Remember, your body is designed to store extra sugar in the fat cells around your middle, so low fat eating isn't necessarily going to help you loose weight if that is your goal.

Cereals and breads that carry the whole grain label are healthier than those that do not. Not all breads labeled whole wheat are entirely whole wheat. Don't forget to check the label. Even in the world of fruits and vegetables some choices are better than others. For instance, peaches packed in heavy syrup add unnecessary sugar to the diet, while those packed in water or juice provide better nutrition. The best sources are always the unprocessed variety.

Eat seasonal foods when they are available. Berries are excellent sources of essential nutrients, and antioxidants. Eat them raw, in homemade smoothies, and as toppings for a desert. Berries can also be an excellent ingredient in entries as well. Search your cookbooks, or the Internet, for great recipes that are quick and simple. In the fall, the many varieties of gourds provide a surprisingly wide range of flavors and nutrition. They are also an excellent source of dietary fiber, which is a critical factor in the support of optimal health.

Eating well does take a bit more effort than popping a prepared meal in the microwave, but with a little bit of planning it should not require a significant time investment. You also don't need to be a gourmet cook. Preparing your own meals is easier than you may think so give it a try and don't be afraid to mess up a dish from time to time. The learning experience will lead to you being an even more skilled cook. The benefits include better nutrient intake, and lower intake of sodium, transfats, and preservatives. Invest a little time for a healthier you and enjoy the wide variety of tastes that real, unprocessed foods have to offer.***

by Dave Saunders
About the author: Dave Saunders is a professional lecturer, and certified nutritional educator. He enjoys creating interconnections through his writings and lectures to help others create context and see new discoveries and technologies in more a practical light. You can find out more about how to maintain a healthy diet at

Drinking Tea May Guard Against Ovarian Cancer

Drinking Tea May Guard Against Ovarian Cancer
Consuming two or more cups of tea a day over a period of time may reduce the risk of ovarian cancer dramatically, suggests a new study published in the Archives of Internal Medicine. And each additional cup of tea per day appears to provide significantly more protection, investigators found.

Because tea is the second most-consumed beverage in the world, its potential health benefits could have important implications for human health and disease prevention, says the Tea Council of the USA.
"An abundance of research suggests that tea may play a role in the reduction of risk of cardiovascular disease and various types of cancer," notes Joe Simrany, president of the trade organization. "These new findings suggest that drinking tea regularly may help to reduce the risk of ovarian cancer as well. This is good news and points to yet another area where tea may have a positive effect on health."

46 Percent Lower Ovarian Cancer Risk
Researchers at Sweden's National Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, examined the association between tea consumption and risk of ovarian cancer in 61,057 women 40 to 76 years of age who took part in the population-based Swedish Mammography Cohort.

The participants completed a validated 67-item food frequency questionnaire at enrollment between 1987 and 1990, and were followed for cancer incidence through December 2004.
At baseline, 68 percent of the participants reported drinking tea -- primarily black tea -- at least once a month. During 15.1 years of follow-up, 301 women were diagnosed as having epithelial ovarian cancer. The researchers found tea consumption of two or more cups of tea per day had a significant inverse association with risk of ovarian cancer.

Specifically, women who drank two or more cups of tea per day experienced a 46 percent lower risk of ovarian cancer, compared with women who drank no tea. Each additional cup of tea was associated with an 18 percent decreased risk of ovarian cancer.

Additional Health Benefits
A multitude of research studies suggest that drinking tea may contribute to overall health. Potential benefits include the following:
- Reduced risk of heart attack and stroke, and improved blood vessel function;
- Less risk of certain cancers, including colorectal and skin cancers;
- Decreased levels of oxidative DNA damage and increases in antioxidant levels in the bloodstream; and
- Oral health benefits -- researchers believe certain compounds in tea may inhibit bacteria that cause bad breath and plaque, and the fluoride content in tea supports healthy tooth enamel.***

by Nicole Weaver
About the author: Nicole Weaver is a health journalist for Daily News Central, an online publication that delivers breaking news and reliable health information to consumers, healthcare providers and industry professionals.

Artikel: Tips Mengolah dan Memodifikasi Adonan Roti (Bag.1)

Tips Mengolah dan Memodifikasi Adonan Roti (Bag.1)
kirman: Bunda Syahrial Z, Kota Duri- Riau

Jenis Dan Fungsi Bahan:

1. Tepung Terigu
Tepung terigu untuk membuat roti harus menggunakan resep tepung terigu tinggi protein atau hard wheat. Tepung jenis ini banyak mengandung gluten / protein terigu. Protein gluten ini tersusun atas gliadin dan glutenin. Giladin berfungsi sebagai perekat dan menjadikan resep adonan roti elastis. Sedangkan glutenin berfungsi menjaga adonan resep tetap kokoh dan menahan gas CO2 selama proses fermentasi sehingga resep adonan dapat mengembang serta terbentuk proti-pori.
Tepung terigu tinggi protein mengandung sekitar 14 % protein. Terigu jenis ini akan menghasilkan tekstur roti yang berserat halus dan empuk.

Jika salah didalam memilih tepung terigu, roti akan berserat kasar, keras dan tidak mengembang maksimal. Terigu jenis ini dijual dengan merek dagang cakra kembar.

2. Ragi
Ragi (yeast) adalah mikroorganisme hidup dari keluarga fungus, spesies Saccaharomyces Cerevisiae. Di dalam resep adonan roti, ragi bergungsi memfermentasi adonan sehingga adonan dapat mengembang dan terbentuk serat / pori roti. Di dalam proses fermentasi, ragi merubah gula dan karbohidrat di dalam adonan menjadi gas karbondioksida (CO2) dan alkohol. Terbentuknya zat inilah yang menjadikan adonan mengembang dan bararoma harum khas roti ketika dipanggang.

Di pasaran banyak dijual aneka jenis ragi. Seperti ragi basah atau ragi kering instan. Ragi basah kurang populer karena tidak praktis dalam penggunaanya, seperti harus menggunakan adonan biang, disimpan dalam suhu dingin dan tidak tahan lama. Ragi instan lebih banyak digunakan karena praktis dan dapat dicampur langsung ke dalam adonan.

Penambahan ragi biasanya menggunakan perbandingan 20-25 g ragi per 1 kilogram tepung terigu. Ragi instan dijual dengan merek dagang fermipan.

3. Gula
Di dalam resep adonan roti, gula berfungsi sebagai makanan ragi. Dengan adanya gula, ragi bisa berkembang lebih cepat dan proses fermentasi menjadi berjalan dengan baik. Gula juga memberi rasa manis pada hasil akhir resep roti dan memperbaiki warna dan aroma karena proses karamelisadsi selama pemanggangan. Fungsi yang lain adalah sifat gula higroskopis sehingga menjadikan roti lebih awet. Gunakan gula sekitar 25% dari berat tepung terigu. Roti tertentu seperti roti manis memerlukan jumlah gula lebih banyak. Penambahan gula terlalu banyak akan menyebabkan proses fermentasi berjalan cepat sehingga pori-pori roti menjadi kasar dan roti lebih cepat gosong saat dipanggang.

Pilihlah gula berkualitas baik, ciri-cirinya tidak bergumpal, butirannya halus, berwarna putih bersih tanpa kotoran.

4. Lemak
Adonan roti umumnya menggunakan lemak nabati (margarin) dan lemak hewani (mentega). Di dalam adonan roti, lemak berfungsi untuk memperbaiki tekstur dan citarasa.
Resep roti akan lebih empuk dan aroma harum dengan adanya lemak di dalam resep adonan. Tekstur roti juga lebih halus dan serat tidak kasar dan seret ketika dimakan.

Penggunaan lemak biasanya 2-6% dari berat tepung. Pilih lemak sesuai dengan kebututhan resep yang akan dibuat.

5. Cairan
Adakalanya adonan roti harus ditambah dengan cairan, seperti air dingin, susu cair, jus buah atau santan. Gunakan dengan jumlah sesuai dengan petunjuk resep. Kelebihan cairan akan menyebabkan adonan lembek. Sebaliknya, kekurangan cairan menyebabkan adonan keras, susah digiling dan dibentuk.

Dengan adanya cairan di dalam adonan, kepadatan adonan bisa dikontrol, membatu penyebaran bahan-bahan lain agar dapat tercampur rata. Cairan juga memungkinkan terbentuknya gluten lebih cepat dan elastis. Cairan seperti susu memberikan efek hasil roti lebih empuk dan adonan lebih elastis.

Gunakan susu tawar cair dan air ber PH normal untuk hasil adonan maksimal.

6. Telur

Telur yang biasanya digunakan untuk membuat resep adonan roti adalah telur ayam. Di dalam resep adonan, telur berfungsi memperbaiki nilai gizi roti, meningkatkan cita rasa menjadi lebih lezat, membantu pembentukan tekstur serat roti lebih halus. Kandungan lecithin di dalam kuning telur membantu mengemulsi adonan sehingga struktur adonan lebih kompak. Pilih telur ayam yang baru, tidak retak dan bersih.

Selalu memecahkan telur di dalam baskom, jangan langsung di atas resep adoan untuk menghindari telur yang ternyata busuk.

7. Bread Improver

Penambahan bread improver kadang perlu ditambahkan . Bahan ini tersusun dari ascorbic acid dan L. Cyxtein serta sodium metabisulphite yang berguna sebagai penguat dan pelunak gluten. Bread improver juga mengadung makanan bagi ragi, enzim serta emulsifier. Dengan penambahan bread improver, proses fermentasi akan berjalan lebih cepat, tekstur roti lebih empuk, serat lebih halus, volume yang besar serta roti lebih tahan lama. Dijual dengan merek dagang unipan.

8. Garam
Walaupun diperlukan dalam jumlah sedikit, peran garam sangat penting di dalam adonan roti. Dengan adanya garam proses fermentasi ragi dapat dikontrol. Jika tidak ada garam, fermentasi akan berjalan lebih cepat dan gula akan habis dimakan oleh ragi, akibatnya warna kulit roti akan menjadi pucat dan berkerut karena tidak ada gula. Garam juga berfungsi menyetabilkan kekokohan gluten di dalam menahan gas sehingga adonan tidak mudah turun.

Tips: fungsi lain garam adalah memeperbaiki cita rasa menjadi lehih gurih dan roti menjadi lebih awet. Penambahan garam sebaiknya 2 - 2,5% dari jumlah tepung.***

source: Tabloid Lezat


Easy, Frugal Tuna Casserole Recipes

Tuna casseroles are one of the most frugal dinners you can make. Most picky kids will eat them, and most picky husbands will too! Whenever you can't think of something for dinner, you can bet you will probably have the ingredients on hand to make some of these all time favorites:

Classic Tuna Casserole
1 envelope chicken noodle soup mix 2 1/2 cups boiling water 3 tablespoons butter 3 tablespoons flour 1 can tuna 2 cups canned peas, drained 1/4 cup buttered bread crumbs Pepper

Preheat oven to 450 degrees. In a small saucepan, combine soup mix and water; heat to boiling. In another saucepan, melt butter over low heat and blend in flour and pepper. Gradually stir in hot soup and cook until thickened. Add tuna and fold in peas. Pour into a greased baking dish and top with bread crumbs. Bake for about 15 minutes, until heated through.

Chopstick Tuna
1 can tuna, drained 1 can cream of mushroom soup 2 cups chow mein noodles 1 cup celery, chopped 1/4 cup onion, chopped 1/2 cup almonds or cashews, chopped

Combine soup with 1/4 cup water. Add 1 cup chow mein noodles and remaining ingredients. Place in baking dish and spread rest of noodles on top. Bake at 375 degrees for 30 minutes.

Tuna Supper Casserole
1 (10 oz.) package frozen spinach 1 can tuna, drained 1 small can sliced mushrooms (optional) 2 tablespoons lemon juice 3 tablespoons butter 1 tablespoon minced onion 2 tablespoons flour 1/2 teaspoon salt 1/8 teaspoon pepper 1 egg, slightly beaten

Cook spinach according to directions on package. Drain well. Drain mushrooms, saving liquid. Add lemon juice and water to mushroom juice to make 1 cup liquid. In a saucepan, melt 2 tablespoons butter, and blend in onion, flour, salt, pepper, and mushroom liquid. Cook, stirring, until smooth and thick. Beat sauce into egg, then add mushrooms. Arrange spinach in a casserole dish, then top with tuna. Pour sauce on top. Dot with 1 tablespoon butter and bake at 350 degrees for 30 minutes.

Tuna Casserole
1 (16 oz.) carton cottage cheese 2 cans cream of mushroom soup 1 medium onion, chopped finely 1 tablespoon Worcestershire sauce 2 garlic cloves, minced 1 cup sour cream 2 cans tuna 1 teaspoon salt 1/4 teaspoon pepper 4 cups macaroni, cooked Cheddar cheese, grated

Mix all ingredients except cheese together in a casserole dish and top with grated cheese. Bake at 425 degrees for 45 minutes.***

by Rachel Paxton
About the author: Rachel Paxton is a freelance writer and mom who is the author of What's for Dinner?, an e-cookbook containing more than 250 quick easy dinner ideas. Creative Homemaking's free recipe database also has more than 50 casserole recipes to choose from. For more recipes, organizing tips, home decorating, crafts, holiday hints, and more, visit Creative Homemaking at


Italian Prosciutto and Cantaloupe Appetizer

Italian prosciutto and cantaloupe appetizer is an easy and delightful beginning to any meal. The delicate salty flavor of prosciutto balances the sweet and juicy cantaloupe to create a taste pleasing appetizer.

This traditional Italian antipasto often appears on the menu in fine Italian restaurants. Italian prosciutto and cantaloupe can even be found in cafes around Rome and other hot spots in Italy.
Try serving Italian prosciutto and cantaloupe attractively arranged the next time you have a dinner party and then sit back and relax. You will be delightfully surprised at all the compliments that will follow your presentation.

Ripe cantaloupe
Prosciutto sliced very thin
Black pepper

Chill the melon, cut it into halves and remove the seeds. Slice the melon into inch wide slices. Run your knife along the bottom of the flesh close to the rind, being careful not to remove the rind. Leave a small amount of the rind at the end of the slice attached to the flesh. This will allow for an appealing presentation.
Drape 2 wide, very thin slices of prosciutto at an angle over each slice of melon. Allow some of the melon to show through the prosciutto. Grind a small amount of black pepper over top and serve chilled. ***

by Shauna Hanus
About the author: Shauna Hanus is a gourmet cook who specializes in creating gourmet recipes. She has extensive experience cooking with easy to find grocery items to create delightful gourmet meals. She is also the publisher of a no cost bi-monthly gourmet newsletter. Her newsletter is always fun and informational packed with tips and trivia you can use everyday.

Artikel: Tips Membuat Donat Empuk dan Enak

Tips Membuat Donat Empuk dan Enak
kiriman: Bu Husna, Malang

Anda dan keluarga suka menikmati kue donat? Daripada selalu membeli, tak ada salahnya kan untuk mencobanya sendiri. Kalau sudah begini tentu Anda ingin mendapatkan tips membuat donat yang empuk dan enak, bukan?

Donat atau dalam bahasan inggirsnya disebut donut, salah satu kue yang namanya cukup populer dan bisa jadi sebagai favorit masyarakat dunia. Kemunculannya sejak pertama kali, donat memiliki penampilan bentuk yang sangat khas dengan lubang di tengah layaknya seperti cincin. Namun sesekali ada juga yang berbentuk bulat lau diisi dengan resep di dalamnya.

Donat memiliki sejarah yang cukup panjang, para arkeolog Amerika menemukan beberapa peninggalan yang menggambarkan adanya jenis makanan berbentuk seperti donat pada zaman pra sejarah. Namun diduga keras bahwa donat berasal dari negara Belanda, tepatnya dari daerah Manhatten dan disana donat dinamakan "olykoeks" atau kue yang digoreng.

Hingga kini kemunculan donat masih menjadi sajian resep kue favorit yang praktis untuk disantap. Bahkan di Amerika sendiri, mungkin saat ini ada lebih 10 juta donat diproduksi setiap tahunnya. Tak mau kalah, di Indonesia resep kue donat yang diadaptasi dari resep kuliner Barat ini kepopulerannya bisa disejajarkan dengan resep kue-kue tradisional Indonesia seperti resep jajanan pasar. Buktinya untuk mendapatkan kue donat tidaklah sulit, baik di pasar tradisional maupun di berbagai bakery shop modern.

Di tengah masyarakat yang modern, kini penampilan donat tidak selalu berbentuk bulat dengan lubang di tengah, bahkan bentuknya makin unik dan bervariasi, sehingga makin menggoda untuk disantap. Anda penasaran ingin membuat kue donat sendiri dengan citarasa lezat, aroma yang harum dan sungguh terasa empuk saat digigit? Yuk simak tips singkat berikut ini:

Kenali Bahan Resepnya:
1. Tepung
Bahan resep utama untuk membuat donat adalah resep tepung terigu dengan kandungan proteinnya sedang. Saat pengulenan, protein akan berubah majadi gluten yang kemudian akan memberi kerangka / tekstur yang bagus. Kadang, resep tepung yang digunakan dalam membuat donat dicampurkan dengan resep tepung protein rendah untuk memperoleh terkstur yang lebih lembut.

2. Gula
Pilihlah gula yang mudah larut dalam air. Gula halus bisa juga digunakan. Gula bukan saja sebagai resep bahan untuk memaniskan, tetapi juga menentukan keempukan dan mempertahankan daya simpan kue donat. Sekalipun donat yang ingin Anda buat berasa asin, jangan tinggalkan gula. Mengapa? Gula juga berfungsi mengaktifkan ragi.

3. Telur
Tidak bisa dipungkiri pemakaian resep telur membuat resep donat makin enak. Banyak orang lebih suka menggunakan bagian kuning telur ketimbang putihnya. Dengan tujuan melembutkan dan memberikan warna kuning yang lebih menarik.

4. Pengembang
Ragi adalah resep bahan pengembang yang paling populer. Yang paling banyak digunakan saat ini adalah ragi instan, karena jauh lebih mudah cara penggunaannya yaitu cukup diaduk dengan adonan. Selain itu, penambahan resep baking powder dan resep improver (bread improver) sebagai pengembang juga berpengaruh terhadap keempukan kue donat.

5. Cairan
Ada yang suka menggunakan air. Sebagian ada juga yang lebih suka menggunakan resep cairan susu ke dalam adonan. Penggunaan resep susu membuat kue donat lebih lembut ketimbang air, selain itu rasanya jauh lebih enak.

6. Garam
Walaupun penggunaannya cuma seujung sendok teh, penambahan garam dalam adonan fungsinya cukup besar yaitu untuk mengontrol pengembangan adonan. Yang patut diingat, garam dapat menghambat kerja ragi sehingga jangan pernah didekatkan. Jadi penambahan garam, sebaiknya setelah adonan tercampur rata, akan jauh lebih baik.

7. Lemak
Margarin dan mentega adalah lemak yang seirng digunakan dalam membuat resep donat. Adanya lemak dalam resep adonan donat akan membuat kaya citarasanya disamping juga membuat donat jadi lembut.

8. Minyak Goreng
Pilih minyak goreng yang warnanya kuning jernih. Lebih bagus menggunakan minyak goreng padat, karena hasilnya lebih cryspy.

9. Taburan
Kalau dahulu donat cukup dtabur dengan gula halus, kini donat mulai mempercantik diri. Bahan-bahan resep yang bisa dijadikan taburan seperti resep misis, resep almond, resep cokelat, resep kacang cincang, hingga beragam resep perment trimit yang bentuknya lucu dan menarik.

Kenali Alat Yang Digunakan:

1. Alat Ukur
Mungkin Anda boleh kagum dengan keahlian orang tua zaman dulu yang mampu membuat kue donat tanpa takaran cukup dengan ilmu perkiraan. Ups hati-hati lho, tanpa mengambil resiko alat ukur ini sangat penting penggunaannya. Untuk menghasilkan donat yang standar dan enak, minimal alat ukur yang musti Anda punyai yaitu timbangan dan sendok ukur.

2. Pengaduk Adonan
Membuat resep adonan donat bisa dicampur langsung dan diuli dengan tangan yang syaratnya kekuatan pengulenan harus konsisten. Seiring perkembangan zaman, kini Anda bisa menggunakan mesin yang disebut mixer. Untuk adonan resep yang jumlahnya tidak terlalu banyak, bisa menggunakan mixer skala rumah tangga dengan mengganti baling-balingnya dengan bentuk spiral.

3. Kom Adonan / Wadah
Tidak ada persyaratan khusus yang musti disarankan dan yang terpenting harus dibersihkan.

4. Rolling Pin
Alat penggiling ini bermanfaat untuk menipiskan adonan yang hendak dibentuk dan juga menggeluarkan udara saat adonan resep mengembang.

5. Cetakan Donat
Kalau biasanya donat bentuknya hanya bulat dengan lubang di tengah, kini tampilan donat cukup variatif. Makin banyak ahli kuliner yang berivovasi dengan mencetak donat bentuk kotak, segitiga, oval hingga bergelombang. Wah, tampilan donat kini makin bervariasi dan menggoda!

6. Wajan
Agar hasilnya maksimal, pilih wajan yang dilapisi anti lengket sehingga tidak mudah gosong.

Teknik Pembuatan

1. Pencampuran
Mulailah dari pengayakan tepung terigu dengan tujuan agar hasilnya tidak berbutir-butir, lalu campur semua resep bahan kering, aduk rata. Tambahkan cairan sedikit demi sedikit sambil diaduk hingga rata. Setelah resep tercampur rata, lemak bisa dimasukkan sambil terus diaduk hingga kalis dan rata.

2. Pengulenan
Pada teknik ini bisa menggunakan tangan atau mixer. Bila menggunakan tangan, gerakannya cukup mudah. Lakukan seperti mencuci pakaian, tarik adonan ke depan sambil sedikit ditekan lalu lipat lagi ke arah Anda. Begitu seterusnya dan laukukan berulang-lulang hingga adonan kalis.
Yang menggunakan mixer, perhatikan adonan tidak boleh terlalu panas akibat gesekan baling-baling mixer. Jika ini terjadi, sebaiknya hentikan dan teruskan dengan menggunakan tangan hingga resep adonan benar-benar kalis.
Untuk mengetes adonan kalis, ambil sedikit adonan, lalu tarik melebar. Kalau adonan sobek, ulangi proses pengulenan hingga adonan tidak lagi mudah sobek.

3. Fermentasi
Setelah adonan kalis lalu diistirahatkan yang disebut difermentasikan untuk mengembangkan resep adonan. Selama proses fermentasi lebih kurang 15 hingga 30 menit, adonana sebaiknya ditutupi plastik atau serbet basah. Tujuannya untuk mencegah penguapan dan hasilnya tidak kering.

4. Mengempiskan Adonan
Nah, ditahap ini penggunaaan alat rollling pin sangat bermanfaat. Adonaa dikeluarkan dari wadah, lalu pipihkan sampai setebal yang diharapkan.

5. Mencetak
Setelah dipipihkan, cetak adonan donat sesuai selera. Alat yagn digunakan untuk mnencetak bisa terbuat dari bahan stailess steel. Buat bentuk donat yang cantik dan menarik. Ingat, bentuk yang cantik akan membuat donat kelihatan menggiurkan. Setelah dicetak, fermentasikan kembali selama lebih kurang 10 menit agar mengembang.

6. Menggoreng
Kue donat harus selalu digoreng dalam minyak banyak dan terendam dengan panas tertentu agar warnanya tetap kuning kecokelatan dan matangnya merata. Agar donat tidak terlalu banyak menyerap minyak, lebih baik gunakan minyak gorang padat. Minyak ini bersifat cepat membeku dalam suhu ruang.

7. Kue donat siap dihias agar semakin cantik
Pada artikel kali ini menyajikan resep donat yang lagi tren plus step by step . Tentunya donat yang aromanya harum, teksturnya empuk saat digigigt dan tampilan bentuknya yang menarik, pasti akan selalu dicari para penggemar donat, tentunya!. ***

source: Tabloid Lezat


Various Kind of Nuts

Nuts are dried fruit that have kernels or seeds encased in a hard woody shell or rind. There are many specific kinds of fruits included in the category of "nuts" and also many that really are not true nuts. People eat many kinds of nuts and some such as the coconut have long been recognized as an important food source. Many kinds of nuts contain valuable substances such as oil and minerals. There are nuts that grow wild and are gathered from the plants, but some such as the peanut, are cultivated in very large quantities. Peanuts are sold as nuts and are also processed into peanut butter.

Nuts as Food
The peanut is by far the most popular nut used for food. Other popular nuts are cashews, walnuts, almonds, pecans, pinons and pistachio nuts. The breadnut is also popular and is often ground into flour to use in making bread. Most of these nuts contain between 50 and 70 % fat and oil and from 15 to 30 % protein. They also contain starch, Vitamin C and the B vitamins, including thiamine, riboflavin, and niacin. Walnuts and pecans also include Vitamin A. Nuts are a healthy part of the diet and are included under the Meat and Protein section of the food pyramid.

Nuts as a Source of Oil
There are valuable oils in many kinds of nuts. Generally, these oils are divided into two groups - drying oils and non-drying oils. When drying oils are exposed to air they form a thin elastic film. The nuts in this category are English walnuts, candlenuts and oiticicas. They are used in the manufacture of paint, printer's ink, linoleum, oilcloth and patent leather. Non-drying oils are always in a liquid state at room temperature. The nuts in this category include peanuts, coconuts, cashews, pecans, filberts and pili nuts. They are used in the manufacture of lubricants and lighting as well as in making margarine, and soap.

Other Nuts
There are some nuts used in the tanning process. These nuts include bitternut, acorns and pecans. Other nuts, such as beechnut and acorn are used as livestock feed and the betel nut is often chewed as a stimulant. ***

by James Hunt
About the author: James Hunt has spent 15 years as a professional writer and researcher covering stories that cover a whole spectrum of interest. Read more at


No Bake Grasshopper Pie

Here is a delicious no-bake pie for you to try!
Crust: 1 bag (7 oz) chocolate and mint-filled sandwich cookies (Such as Pepperidge Farms Mint Milano) 1/2 cup slivered almonds 2 tablespoons unsalted butter, softened

Filling: 8 ounces mascarpone cheese (or cream cheese) 1 envelope unflavored gelatin 1/2 cup creme de menthe syrup (such as Torani, availabe at gourmet stores, or 2 tablespoons confectioners sugar 1 1/4 cups plus 1/3 cup heavy cream Mint and chocolate curls, to garnish

1. Slice 1 inch off one end of each sandwich cookie. Pulse these pieces in a food processor with almonds until all are ground. Add softened butter and pulse until evenly combined. Press crumbs onto the bottom of a 9-inch pie plate, covering your hand with plastic wrap to avoid sticking. Prop remaining cookies, cut side down, around rim of plate. Refrigerate until ready to fill.

2. Filling: Let mascarpone cheese soften in a large bowl at room temperature. Beat slightly with a hand mixer until smooth. Meanwhile, sprinkle gelatin over 1/4 cup water in a 1-cup glass measuring cup. Let soften 2 minutes. then microwave for 15 seconds, until gelatin is dissolved. Let cool slightly.

3. Gradually beat creme de menthe syrup and sugar into mascarpone until blended; mixture will look curdled. While mixer is running, add 1 1/4 cups of the heavy cream. Beat until soft peaks are formed. Gradually beat in gelatin; beat until medium-stiff peaks are formed. Pour into prepared crust, swirling top decoratively. Refrigerate 4 hours, or until set.

4. Once pie is set, beat remaining 1/3 cup cream to soft peaks. Dollop on top of pie and sprinkle with chocolate curls and mint sprigs.

Per serving: 395 calories; 30 g. fat (16 g sat) 4 g protein, 28 g carbohydrate; 1 g. fiber, 72 mg sodium, 74 mg cholesterol.
Makes: 12 servings. Prep time: 20 minutes Refrigerate: 4 hours or until set
Meet The Love of Your Life Elenas Models ***

by Phyllis Wasserman
About the author: Author is website owner and gourmet cook and accomplished writer. Visit my websites:


Spaghetti Sauce Choices

Jarred spaghetti sauce is fast, convenient and tasty. Most are basic marinara and don't have additives like food color, preservatives and artificial flavors. Many are high in Vitamins A and C. As far as food choices go they are a very healthy packaged food. Check the labels when buying. A cup of raw, chopped tomatoes (equal to about 1/2 cup of cooked sauce) has only 16 milligrams of sodium and depending on ripeness and the variety of tomato, up to 5 grams of natural suagr. So a 1/2 cup serving of jarred sauce can range from 200 to 770 mg of sodium and as much as 10 grams of sugar. Tomatoes are naturally sweet, so tomato sauce doesn't need added sweeteners to be tasty. The sodium level should be about 350 mg or less per 1/2 cup serving. Spaghetti sauce has a bonus. The powerful antioxidant lycopene is inherent in the tomatoes. Lycopene is supposed to prevent certain cancers, like prostate and breast. It is also said to lower your risk of cardio-vascular disease. Heat and oil enhace lycopenes absorption by the body. So cooked tomato products offer you the best source of lycopene. The best jar sauce I have used is Rao's Marinara, next would be Bove's Marinara, and last I would recommend Colavita Marinara. ***

by Phyllis Wasserman
About the author: Homemaker, retired secretary, from North Eastern U.S. Avid cook, and gardener, with recipe website Also, pet lover with animal care website

Artikel: Tips Agar Roti Manis, Empuk dan Mengembang

Tips Agar Roti Manis, Empuk dan Mengembang
kiriman: Bunda Suhaila, Stabat- SUMUT

Resep jitu agar roti yang kita buat manis, empuk dan mengembang dapat dilakukan dengan rincian sebagai berikut:

1. Gunakan campuran resep tepung terigu berkadar protein tinggi dan terigu berkadar protein rendah dengan perbandingan 3:1.

2. Penambahan resep margarin dan garam sebaiknya dilakukan saat adonan sudah tidak lengket di tangan.

3. Agar aroma dan rasa roti lebih variatif gunakan campuran resep mentega dan margarin dengan perbandingan 1:1.

4. Pilih ragi atau instant yeast dalam kemasan siap pakai. Perhatikan juga tanggal kadaluwarsanya.

5. Cara mengetes ragi: larutkan dulu ragi/instant yeast dalam air matang atau susu segar. Tunggu selama 2 - 3 menit. Jika ragi tidak bereaksi berarti telah mati dan tidak dapat digunakan.

6. Proses pengadukan resep adonan bisa menggunakan mesin atau manual. Jika manual jangan terlalu keras membanting adonan. Karena akan membuat ragi mati dan adonan tidak mengembang. Apabila menggunakan mixer, cukup dengan kecepatan sedang.

7. Setelah resep adonan ditimbang, tutup dengan serbet basah agar kelembabannya terjaga.

8. Jangan terlalu lama membiarkan resep adonan yang telah mengembang, karena over proofing akan membuat roti menjadi asam.

9. Olesi permukaan roti dengan campuran resep susu cair, telur dan madu, agar teksturnya lembut dan warnanya bagus.

10. Panggang dalam oven 180 derajat celcius selama 20 menit. Setelah roti dikeluarkan dari oven, olesi dengan margarin cair, beri topping sesuai selera.***

source: Tabloid Lezat


Planning for those Holiday Meals

It is that time of year again when everyone begins to think and prepare for the large family dinner parties.

If this is the year that you have been chosen to prepare Thanksgiving dinner for the entire family you may be feeling overwhelmed. But, as long as you prepare and have everything ready beforehand, your dinner could be that special wonderful meal and will turn out to be a joyous time to remember for you and your family.

Start planning your Thanksgiving dinner around Halloween. Yes, that is correct about one month in advance. You will need to choose what recipes you plan on serving. You will have plenty of time to scout for new recipes and maybe try a few on your family. You may wish to order either a turkey or ham that has already been prepared or you may prefer a fresh turkey to a frozen one. A fresh turkey does have a better taste than those frozen ones and they are easier to prepare, so go with this option if you can.

Go through your pantry and see what you have in the way of spices and flavorings that you may need to prepare some of your favorite dishes including all of those unique dessert and cookies that everyone loves. If you do not have everything that is in the recipes, write a list and begin to shop. Yes, it is fine to shop for your holiday meal three weeks before it is time to cook. If you wait until the last minute to find out that you are out of brown sugar, you may get to the grocery store and find out they out also sold out. So, plan ahead and have all the ingredients you need ahead of time, except for the items that can perish like the turkey. You can even order your fresh turkey from the grocery store and tell them the day you will pick it up. If you buy frozen, it will need to thaw in the refrigerator for at least 48 hours before roasting.

About two weeks before Thanksgiving, check to see that you have your china ready and any other eating utensils and serving trays, cleaned and ready for use. At this time you can also decorate your home with all the colorful and unique holiday decorations. This is also the best time to get out the card table or add a leaf to your dining room table. You do not want to wait until Thanksgiving Day to prepare your home for your family. If you need to, you can even rearrange your furniture to accommodate the guests.

A couple of days before the dinner party, you can begin to prepare things like the vegetable tray, the cheese balls, or other appetizers that will be able to last a couple of days. The day before Thanksgiving, you can bake all of your pies, cakes, cookies, and other yummy treats. Now, on the big day you can roast your turkey or bake your ham. And begin to set things out such as appetizers.

Now, all you have left to do is wait for your family to arrive and enjoy your Thanksgiving dinner.***

by Teresa Ruddock
About the author: Teresa Ruddock Is editor of a number of websites including and http://www.greenteahealth.i nfo

Artikel: Tips Mengolah Bahan Roti

Tips Mengolah Bahan Roti
kiriman: Bunda Suhaila, Stabat- SUMUT

Tren mengonsumsi makanan yang serba praktis bagi masyarakat modern seperti sekarang ini merupakan fenomena yang tidak dapat dibendung lagi. Jenis resep makanan yang praktis serta kaya akan nutrisi, pasti menjadi pilihan. Apalagi bagi Anda yang tergolong orang yang sibuk dan tidak ingin repot, mengonsumsi roti merupakan pilihan yang tepat.

Membludaknya bakery shop baru yang terus bermunculan atau yang lebih mudah dijumpai yakni tukang roti yang lewat di depan rumah sepanjang waktu, makin memanjakan kita untuk tetap mencicipi resep sepotong roti. Makanan praktis ini begitu populernya disemua kalangan, penggemarnya pun tidak terbatas hanya anak-anak atau remaja saja, tapi juga orang tua.

Tak ada yang bisa menyebutkan secara pasti kapan resep roti ditemukan oleh manusia. Sudah sejak beberpa ratus tahun yang lalu, roti merupakan makanan yang bernilai dalam berbagai bentuknya dan dijadikan makanan pokok oleh banyak penduduk di dunia. Oleh karena kelainan kebisasaan makan di masing-0masing negara, maka ukuran, bentuk dan susunan rotinya berbeda satu dengan lainnya. Berbagai jenis resep roti, ada roti resep Perancis, resep Wina, resep Italia, Rekanan resep Belanda, resep Kismis, resep Rye Egg, resep Twist, resep Gandum Pecah dan yang terkenal adalah roti resep khas Arab yang di bakar di dinding tungku.

Zaman dulu roti dibuat dari resep gandum yang digiling menjadi tepung terigu murni yang dicampur dengan air dan dibakar diatas batu panas atau di dasar oven yang sangat sederhana. Seiring dengan perkembangan zaman dan makin banyak pakar bakery, kini roti yang kita kenal makin banyak macam resepnya.

Ada begitu banyak jenis roti, mulai dari roti tawar polos hingga roti aneka isi, biasanya orang menyebutnya dengan roti manis. Sebutan roti manis ini agak sedikit unik, karena resep rotinya ada isinya, yaitu berasa gurih dan manis.

di negara kita, roti manis sangat variatif sekali. Mulai dari rasa hingga bentuknya yang cukup lucu-lucu dan mengemaskan. Tak heran, banyak orang memilihnya sebgai sajian yang praktis untuk bekal, entah itu untuk liburan ataupun bekal ke kantor.

Nah, daripada selalu membeli roti, tak ada salahnya Anda mencoba membuat roti resep sendiri, pasti mengasyikkan dan jangan takut gagal. Coba!

Bahan Roti Yang Harus Diperhatikan:

1. Tepung
Pada umumnya tepung terigu merupakan tepung yang paling sering digunakan untuk membuat roti, karena kandungan proteinnya cukup tinggi. Saat diadoni, protein akan berubah menjadi gluten yang kemudian akan memberi tekstur yang bagus pada roti. Jadi, makin tinggi proteinnya, makin bagus pula roti yang dihasilkan. Tapi tak jarang pula, untuk mendapatkan resep roti yang lembut, banyak para bakery mencampurkan resepnya dengan tepung terigu yang proteiinnya sedang.

2. Ragi.
Bahan pengembang yang paling populer untuk resep roti ini ada 3 jenis yakni:
1. Ragi basah, aromanya lebih tajam sehingga roti yang dihasilkan lebih khas baunya, namun penggunaanya kurang pas.
2. Ragi kering, begitu juga dengan ragi jenis ini, pemakaiannya cukup ribet karena harus dimasukkan ke dalam air dulu.
3. Ragi Instan, jauh lebih praktis dan penggunaannya cukup mudah karena tinggal diaduk dalam adonan.

3. Gula
Adonan resep roti yang menggunakan ragi, harus menggunakan gula. Mengapa? karena gula berfungsi mengaktifkan ragi. Tidak hanya itu saja, gula juga membuat warna roti lebih cokelat. Macam gula yang bisa digunakan, ada gula pasir, brown sugar, madu atau sirup gula.
4. Garam
Dalam penggunaanya yang sedikit, penambahan garam pada adonan resep sangat besar fungsinya selain memberi rasa asin. Saat memasukkan garam, sebaiknya jangan dicampur dengan ragi karena akan menghambat kerja ragi.

5. Telur
Tidak bisa dipungkiri, roti yang menggunakan telur akan terasa lezat dibandingkan yang tidak menggunakannya. Banyak orang cenderung menggunakan kuning telur ketimbang putihnya. Karena, rasa roti akan lembut dan warna kuningnya akan lebih menarik.

6. Lemak
Yang sering digunakan adalah margarin atau mentega, khusus resep roti buatan Italia biasanya menggunakan minyak salad. Bahan ini akan membuat roti lebih kaya rasa dan juga lebih lembut.

7. Cairan
Bisa menggunakan air ataupun susu cair, karena fungsinya sama-sama melembutkan roti.***

source: Tabloid Lezat

Buying a Barbeque Grill

Do you enjoy eating outdoors? Many people appreciate the fresh air and attractive views available at many camping spots or sometimes from their own backyard. One way to get the most from having a meal outside is by cooking it yourself over a barbeque grill, which is not difficult if you become familiar with a few safety tips and helpful hints. But before reaching that point, you will want to purchase a suitable grill for outdoor use. Here are some tips that can help you select one that will suit your lifestyle.

1. Decide how much you can afford to spend. A $50 charcoal brazier might fit your budget best for now. Over time, you could save a few hundred dollars to buy a more deluxe model with an outdoor light and optional side shelves. Plan your purchase before walking into the store so you won't be talked into spending more than you can afford.

2. Select a preferred style of cooking grill. Some people prefer the old fashioned method of charcoal briquettes that are ignited by lighter fluid. Other folks like to use a plug-in electric model that cooks more evenly. Some outdoor cooks want to use a gas grill. Check out each type at your favorite sporting goods or department store. Each style requires the purchase or preparation and storage or maintenance of fuel components like charcoal, kerosene, gas, or electric outlets.

3. Carefully choose the most useful auxiliary items. Don't be lured into paying hundreds of dollars more for items you won't use. You can get stainless steel casings, a warming section, burner controls, a nighttime light, the barbeque utensil kit, and a host of other options that look great at the store but may sit idle at home. You can always add more features later if you feel they are needed.

4. Shop for the best deal. Try to plan ahead and buy your grill at the end of the summer when patio and lawn items go on sale. Compare styles, costs, and features among various stores, and ask about sales events or rebates to further reduce the cost.

5. Have a storage area in mind. To make your barbeque last, get one that will fit a suitable place in the garage, shed, patio, or basement. You may want to invest in a vinyl or other type of cover to help prevent rust and mold.

If you plan to cook outdoors, it may be helpful to check out patio furniture or a picnic table when you shop for a grill. Sometimes you can buy a certain amount of merchandise and get a ten percent or higher discount. To cut costs, think about using paper plates and plastic table service for family and/or guests. If desired, you can always use regular dishes for special occasions. ***

by Charles Kassotis
About the author: For more information about selecting and using barbeque grills, along with a variety of features and options as well as safety tips, visit The Barbeque Spot at


Health Benefits for Chai Drinkers

What is Chai Tea?
"Chai" actually means "tea" in Hindi, so calling "chai" "chai tea" is actually rather redundant. However, marketers in the western world thought that "chai tea" would help them sell the "new" product to the western market. Chai is actually centuries old, with its origins in India. Generally, it is a milky, spiced tea made with black tea, cinnamon, ginger, cardamom, cloves, pepper, and various other spices. It is usually sweetened - most commonly with sugar, but some drinkers prefer honey. There is not a universal recipe for chai, as different drinkers like it different ways, so the spice list can change depending on who's making it.

It is most likely this list of ingredients not often found in western beverages that makes chai seem "exotic" to westerners. But in India, chai is as common as tea is in Britain and coffee is in the United States. In fact, it's so common that in many Indian households, the first thing a host offers a guest is a cup of chai.

Potential Health Benefits of Chai
Some tea companies tout the health benefits of drinking their chai product - but buyer beware. While chai is certainly better for the body than a drink such as coffee, because not all chai is made with the same ingredients, it's not really possible to state that chai is universally beneficial. And it's also more likely to benefit the drinker when the drinker has brewed his/her own chai, rather than buying boxed chai or chai in tea bag form. Why? Simply because the spices and herbs being used are much fresher. Here is a list of some of the benefits of the different ingredients in most chai recipes:

1) Cinnamon: In a recent study by the US Agricultural Research Service, cinnamon has been shown to benefit diabetics because the cells are less likely to let insulin in. In lab rats with Type 2 diabetes, cinnamon helped lower blood pressure and prevented cell damage. Cinnamon's oils also help to stop the growth of certain bacteria and yeasts.

2) Ginger: In the Far East, ginger has been used for over two millennia to treat upset stomach, diarrhea, arthritis, and heart disease. Recent research by western scientists also suggests that ginger may help lower the risk of colon cancer.

3) Cardamom: Like ginger, cardamom is often used to soothe digestion problems. But it is also used to treat respiratory problems such as asthma or people suffering from other kinds of respiratory spasms. Further, in Saudi Arabia, animal studies have shown cardamom to have anti-inflammatory properties, reducing muscle spasms.

4) Cloves: Used in Ayurvedic medicine as an analgesic, cloves are most often used to soothe toothaches and remedy halitosis. It also has antiseptic qualities, and can be used to kill intestinal parasites, fungi, and bacteria. These latter qualities have also led cloves to be used for treating diarrhea and similar digestive ailments.

5) Pepper: Most chai recipes do not usually contain enough black pepper for it to be of significant benefit to its drinkers. However, black pepper does reduce intestinal gas and works as an antioxidant.

Just remember: The best way to ensure that your regular cup of chai provides you with the health benefits you're looking for is to brew it yourself. Then you can select the herbs and spices that benefit your specific health condition. ***

by Rachel Medlock
About the author: Rachel Medlock is a connoisseur of hot drinks, including chai. She runs the informational website,

Artikel: Tips Sukses Membuat Roti

Tips Sukses Membuat Roti
kiriman: Bunda Suhaila, Stabat- SUMUT

Adapun jenis roti yang dijual di pasaran jenisnya makin beragam, namun pada umumnya resep roti dibuat dari tepung terigu yang dicampur dengan cairan, lemak dan ragi. Kalau Anda takut gagal dalam membuat roti, coba simak tips singkat berikut ini:

1. Timbang bahan dengan tepat sesui resep. Bila dirasa kurang pas, jangan keburu mengubah resep tersebut. Coba dulu seperti resep aslinya, setelah itu resep bisa diubah sedikit demi sedikit sesuai selera Anda.

2. Pilih bahan yang berkualitas. Ingat, kualitas bahan tak cuma berpengaruh terhadap rasa roti, tapi juga pada keberhasilan resep roti. Seperti pada pemilihan ragi, bila Anda menggunakan ragi dengan kualitas kurang baik maka roti tidak akan mengembang sempurna.

3. Saat membeli ragi, perhatian tanggal kadaluarsa. Bila di rumah, Anda jarang membuat roti , lebih baik gunakan ragi dalam kemasan sachet. Jangan gunakan ragi yang sudah tersisa lama, apalagi sudah terpapar udara, maka fungsi ragi tak bisa diandalkan.

4. Bila ada sisa bahan, perhatikan cara penyimpanannya. Tempung terigu misalnya, keluarkan dari plastiknya dan masukkan dalam kaleng yang bersih dan kering. Perhatikan tutupnya, tutup kaleng harus bsia ditutup rapat. Jika Anda ingin menambahkan tepung yang baru, habiskan dulu isinya, sehingga tapung lama tidak terbuang sia-sia.

5. Menguleni adonan roti, sebaiknya harus benar-benar elastis supaya mengembang sempurna.

6. Fermentasi harus berlangsung tepat waktu. Terlalu lama, membuat roti terasa asam. Terlalu sebentar, roti kurang sempurna pengembangannya.

7. Setelah difermentasi, roti harus dikempiskan sampai betul-beltul kempis supaya tidak berluang-lubang.

8. Sebelum roti masuk dalam oven, bentuk roti sebaiknya dibetulkan kembali, karena setelah mengembang bagian bawah roti seringkali terbuka.

9. Meng-oven roti tidak boleh terlalu lama dan iuti petunjuk dalam resep.***

source: Tabloid Lezat


Chocolate Covered Espresso Beans

Chocolate Covered Espresso Beans are great fun, as mid-day pick-me-ups or as a garnish on top of ice cream or some other dessert item. You can buy a pack at your local supermarket, and you'll get slightly oblong-shaped, smooth, dark, rich and glossy nuggets that both look and taste absolutely fabulous. However, if you're a coffee buff like me, or just like cooking in general, try out this recipe. Your homemade stuff perhaps won't look as good as the supermarket variety, and won't be glossy, single nuggets in a shiny pack, but they'll sure taste as good. And on top of that you'll get the satisfaction of having made them yourself!

Get yourself some top-quality, preferably organic, coffee beans. Since these will be eaten whole in the form of chocolate covered espresso beans, it's preferable to use Arabica rather than Robusta. Arabica is less bitter, and contains considerably less caffeine. For hard-core coffee addicts, however, Arabica may not contain enough 'kick'. If the beans aren't already roasted, put them in the microwave and keep them there for about 15 minutes, at 400 Fahrenheit.

You can use commercially available thick double chocolate, or you can make your own. You'll need to roast cocoa berries, peel and mash them in a mortar till it's become a smooth paste. The rest depends on what kind of chocolate you want for covering your espresso beans. Some people prefer milk chocolate; in which case, you need to add milk to the dark and oily cocoa paste and also add sugar to taste. Boil the liquid till most of the moisture has evaporated, leaving the smooth, light brown texture of milk chocolate. Adding other flavours is not recommended if you're going to use it for chocolate covered espresso beans, because it might jeopardise the pure coffee-and-cocoa flavour of the final product.

Put the coffee beans on a baking sheet covered with wax paper, and pour molten chocolate over it. Ensure that the beans are laid out in a single layer, and not too far apart from each other. They should be fully covered all around with the chocolate. After the beans have cooled down somewhat, put the whole sheet in a freezer.

If you need glossier, individual beans, you need to use candy molds. Put individual beans in the moulds, and then pour the chocolate. The beans will be easier to pop out of their moulds if you mix a little peanut butter with the chocolate. This process is lengthier, but yields better-looking nuggets that are of more commercial value - that is, if you're thinking of selling chocolate covered espresso beans.***

by Randy Wilson
Randy has more articles on coffee and coffee beans such as Cof fee Enema and Coffee Makers.

Link Resep: Aneka Resep Pempek Palembang



French Chocolate Brownies

French Chocolate Brownies

Julia Moskin’s got a terrific story about Brownies in the Dining section of today’s New York Times and I’m delighted that she’s included my recipe for French Chocolate Brownies. I’m crazy about these brownies and love the story of how they came about.

The first time I made the recipe I was in Paris, preparing dinner for friends and thinking I was making a fondant for dessert. Fondant, a creamy chocolate cake, is one of only a handful of sweets the French make for themselves at home. I made my fondant in a square pan (not usual, but not so far-out) and added rum-flamed raisins (again, not usual, but not heretical either). I cut the cake into squares and got the following reaction when I brought it to the table: “Ooh, brownies – splendide!”

Fondant? Brownies? Who was I to argue? Maybe my friends assumed that if an American was offering them a soft, thin, crackle-topped chocolate cake cut into squares, it had to be brownies. It didn’t really matter to me. I liked the recipe in Paris and I liked it just as much when I re-tested it in the States.

Because Julia Moskin is a brownie-purist – she’ll allow nuts, but that’s the limit on add-ins – she understandably clipped the raisins from the recipe. Without raisins, the brownies are a creamy, profoundly chocolaty tender treat; with them, they’re all that with a touch of exoticism tossed in.


If you want to add raisins to the brownies, here’s how to do it:

RUM-FLAMED RAISINS, for French Chocolate Brownies

(Adapted from Baking, From My Home to Yours)

1/3 cup raisins, dark or golden

1 1/2 tablespoons water

1 1/2 tablespoons dark rum

Put the raisins in a small saucepan with the water, bring to a boil over medium heat and cook until the water almost evaporates. Add the rum, let it warm for about 30 seconds, turn off the heat, stand back and flame the rum. When the flames have died, set the raisins aside until needed. Right before you’re ready to put the brownie batter in the pan, fold in the raisins.